Electronic Lower Back MassagersSomething that I haven’t told many people is that I have been personally suffering from lower back pain for almost 5 years now, a full half a decade. It all started when I was around 24. At the time, I was very big into swimming and I would swim at almost Olympic levels of training each day, doing 2-3 hours non-stop. While there was some definite medical benefits, like developing a much better and stronger cardiovascular system, I started to notice that when I would wake up in the morning, my lower back seemed to be unusually tight and I would feel a small acute pinch of pain if I bend down to abruptly.

I would take the lower back pain very seriously and decided to go see multiple orthopedic specialists about the cause of my pain, and what to do about it. After all the trips and all the testing, including multiple X-Rays and even one CT-Scan, I had a lot of conflicting opinions on what was wrong with my lower back region. It seemed that I was either suffering from bone spurs, a herniated disc, a bulging dics, or had horrible posture, causing all the back pain.

Percussion Back Massagers for Lower Back Pain Relief

TheHomedics Brand

The HoMedics Therapist Select Compact Percussion Massager (Model PA-MH) Price: $40 w/ Free Shipping

HoMedics Therapist Select Compact Percussion MassagerDescription: Probably my intial introduction to the world of massagers and the field of pain relief was from going to the local Relax The Back store that is right beside my house and buying a large sized handheld hammer-like massager. That models was the HT-1280 Swan Softouch model. It really completely changed the way I view physical health. Whereas before I would just push myself and my body to achieve more and more, while always noticing that my bdoy felt tight and rigid after waking up in the morning after multiple rounds of doinf the Butterfly Stroke, the handheld massagers allowed my body to recover almost instantly from hard training and exercises in just a few minutes. I could literally feel as if my whole body was melting from the complete drop in stress that was inside my own – Read more

The HoMedics Therapist Select Variable Speed Percussion Massager (Model PA-100) – Price: $150 w/ Free Shipping

Homedics PA-100Description: This model technically has a different brand name and number, being the Model PA-100, and it is sold under the Homedics brand name but from just first impressions it does look very similar to the model PA-MH. The only thing that we were able to see that had any difference between this model and the other one was that this one – Read more


The HoMedics Percussion Massager (Model HHP-350) – Price: $32

HoMedics Percussion Massager - Model HHP-350Description: This particular model is so popular and so massa produced that I have found this exact model being sold at the local drugstore right down the street from me. I have bought one and tried it out myself at home to see how effective it is. At the local Walgreens, it is listed at $32-$35 and that is before tax. However, when it comes to these handheld percussion massagers, it is extremely hard to beat this particular model on price. Pluse, it is one of those two headed models, which seems to be the industry standard. There actually isn’t that many that has just a single head. So far, it is selling well, however from the number of reviews that has been left on the Amazon product page, there have been some complaints about this model – Read more

The HoMedics Extendable Percussion Massager (Model HHP-300) – Price: $35 w/ Free Shipping

HoMedics Extendable Percussion Massager (Model HHP-300Description: I don’t think that the company Homedics would be promoting this model since it is not sold under the Homedics name, even though the name Homedics is used. This model is called the Extendable Percussion Massager, model HHP-300. From what we have seen about this model so far, it is not the most popular model. From our own experience using these heavy double headed model, they can be quite heavy. The only reasons why anyone would wan tto get one with an extendable neck is so that the device can be used by one person in one hand to reach areas of the body that they can’t do with any other models with a shorter arm. So far, we have not encountered that problem – Read more

The Homedics Thera-P Compact Percussion Massager – Price: $30

Homedics Thera-P Compact Percussion MassagerDescription: This model is cheap, has a shorter arm, and the kit comes with maybe 1 or 2 less head attachments. That is really the big different between the Thera-P Compact model and the other models. It has the benefit of having the infrared heat therapy thing going for it, but most models these days have that heating therapy option in them as well. The big things going for this model is that it is smaller, so it is less heavy for the person to hold and use using one hand. It is powered like all the others by plugging it into the wall outlet, so in terms of potential power in watts it can be high, but the design means that the power of the vibrations have been dampened. Many people have complained that this model, while very cheap being just $30 is however too weak for the  device to work in helping them in pain relief and muscle discomfort – Read more

The Thumper Massager Brand

The Thumper Mini Pro 2 Massager – Price: $195 w/ Free Shipping

Thumper Mini Pro 2Description: This is the massager model which has become sort of the standard that we go towards for a really good high quality massager to buy. It is indeed expensive, much more expensive than most products that are out in the market, but it seems that the people who do buy it have only really good things to say about it. I personally am surprised that this “mini” massager has that much power behind it. The product specifications say that it is only 3 lbs total, but it is much stronger than it looks. Like many other percussion models, it is a dual headed device. Traditionally, we have liked to go with the single headed model to give us more control of the massage area as well as being lighter so that our arms don’t become strained from holding up a device that has such a large head. Recently we have found that more people now are really taking towards the double headed models. This one is one of the most popular models that we have seen being sold on Amazon  – Read more

The Thumper Maxi Pro Variable Power Massager – Price: $314 w/ Free Shipping

Thumper Maxi Pro Variable Power MassagerDescription: If you are looking for power, this model is definitely it. It is in our opinion the most powerful model that you can get, even though the seller that sells this particular model only has the 110 Volt version There is a 220 Volt version of this model, and that is the one that many people have been interested in getting. We are willing to find that 220 Volt model ourselves and sell it because this model, which is weaker has been among the best models for muscle ache and pain relief. To let the reader understand why this model has been so effective compared to the other models, realize this. This model actually “thumps” and pushes deep into the muscle to work on giving a real massage, compared to the vibrating types of massagers that we are so used to seeing – Read more

The Thumper  Sport Percussive Massager (Model E501) – Price: $140 w/ Free Shipping

Thumper  Sport Percussive MassagerDescription: On the website for Thumper Massager, you can see that they have over two dozen models of massagers on sale, some for the feet, some for the back, and others for the overall body or whatever body area you want to use it for. This model is one of those models that is sold for use for all the body areas. It is one of those larger models, with a double head.  We’ve seen many of those already before, but this model is slightly stronger than the others. It is called the “Sport” because it is for use by people who might be a little more active. If you are going to be playing a lot of sports, the muscles are going to be used much more and become much more toned and tight. That is why this model is stronger than what you are going to get usually – Read more

The Thumper VMTX Single Sphere Massager – Price: $179 w/ Free Shipping

Thumper VMTX Single Sphere MassagerDescription: We have seen so far 4 other models of massagers sold under the Thumper Massagers brand name, 3 of them being other handheld percussion types and the 4th being a model of feet massager. This is the last product that they sell in their selection, besides the large sized model that is used to massage horses. It is called the Thumper VMTX Single Sphere Massager. Notice that the name already gives the product away. There is only one head that will be vibrating doing the massage. Like all the other models that we have seen, it comes with a set of attachment heads that will –  Read more

The Jeanie Rub Brand

Note: This one specific product, is sold under at least three different brand names or business company names. They are Core Products, Jeanie Rub, and Body Back Vibe.

The Jeanie Rub Variable Speed Massager – Model 3401 (by Core Product) – Price: $192 w/ Free Shipping

Jeanie Rub Variable Speed Massager - Model 3401Description: If we were to be completely honest with the interested buyer of whatever massager, we would tell them that there is really only one main factor that they need to consider when finding a high quality massager, if we at least discount the factor of cost/price of the unit. That main factor is the power behind the massager. Our main problem with so many of these vibrating percussion massagers is that they are just too weak. Rarely do we find something that works really well and give a type of Deep Tissue massage. Most electronic massagers just sort of tap at the surface of the skin, which does almost nothing for people who are looking to use these mechanical devices as a type of physical therapy product –  Read more

The Jeanie Rub Single Speed Massager Model – Price: $192 w/ Free Shipping

Jeanie Rub Variable Speed Massager - Model 3401Description: The pictures that you might have on this model and the variable speed model (3401) will be exactly the same but the similarities are very dramatic when it comes to the effect. We are usually not impressed with models with only one speed but if the speed is high enough with enough power behind them, then we would not be complaining. We looked at the owner’s operating manual for this model and it says that the single speed model can vibrate at 3240 rpm. That is very fast for a massager to be moving at. We realized that on its own, the single speed massager model does very well. If you look at the reviews on this product, people rave about it just like the variable speed model, only in slghtly less numbers. – Read more

The Body Back Vibe Vibration Dual Speed Massager (by Body Back Company) – Price: $130 w/ Free Shipping

Body Back Vibe Vibration Dual Speed MassagerDescription: So when you spend enough time on the giant online retailer Amazon website you start to notice an interesting phenomena. What seems to be the same product is sold by multiple different companies under different names. We saw this model sold under the name Body Back Company (which focuses on selling back pain treatment related products) and instantly recognized that this model is most like the same product as the one sold on the Jeanie Rub name, the Variable Speed model at least. This one is instead called the Vibration Dual Speed Massager. Of course the name of the model doesn’t mean much, since the Brand name is not one that we recognize yet. Here is what the interested buyer really needs to be aware of before making a purchase – Read more

The Maxi Rub MR-2 2-Speed Electric Professional Back Massager – Price:

Maxi Rub MR-2 Back MassagerDescription: We personally don’t know how long the Maxi-Rub brand name has been around but we did find the company website. It says that they are based in Maryville, Illinois, and that the Maxi-Rub massager is associated with Techno Solutions Inc, which is probably the real company name which the Maxi-Rub brand name is under. On the website they sell only 3 main products, this one being one of the three. They just call this model the “Maxi-Rub Body Massager”. The model is a 2-speed model. The low vibrating speed is at 2800 rpms and the high speed is at 3500 rpm. –  Read more

The Medi-Rub Handheld Body Professional Massager – Price: $220 w/ Free Shipping

Medi-Rub Handheld Body MassagerDescription: This model looks similar in shape and size to the same type of percussion massagers sold by Jeanie Rub and Maxi-Rub. We have never gotten this model before, but based on the little bit of information we could find about the model, it seems that the product may be made from the same manufacturer as the others, with only a different brand name and logo on it. It is the variable speed model, aka the two speed model. The people who have already bought this model have said mostly good things about it, like the other products similar to the Medi-Rub, but there were a few complaints that the way this model works – Read more

The MAX Brand & Brookstone Brand

Note: Many of the percussion massagers sold under the Max Brand name is also sold by the now dead company Brookstone, under a very similar name.

The MAX Percussion Massager – Price: $100

MAX Percussion MassagerDescription: There are some models which we say are just “good” and others that we say are “great”. However, there are some others which are our personal favorites. This is one of those models. So why is the “Max Percussion Massager” one of our favorites? We like this particular model a lot because of a combination of different factors, which combien together to make what we consider one of the best models that we have seen in the market today. What makes this model stand out from the others? The first thing, which we are really crazy about is that the head of the model has the protruded edge. That slight edge means that the person who is giving the massage can use both of their hands, for a much better control of the device.  – Read more

The MAX 2 Dual Node Percussion Massager (by Brookstone) – Price: $200 w/ Free Shipping

MAX 2 Dual Node Percussion Massager by BrookstoneDescription: We are very familiar with the Brookstone company and their stores since we used to buy different types of massagers (feet, neck, personal, and handheld) fro the store. It is a shame that the company had to file for bankruptcy and get bought out by some China based large conglomerate company. One of the very first large sized massagers I personally ever bought was from Brookstone. I have always felt that they sell some really need, interesting gadgets that you would find in no other store in the mall. This is why I personally believe that almost all the models of massagers that have the brand name “Brookstone” on them are worth the money you spend. This model called the “Max 2 Dual Node Percussion Massager” is no exception. It is powerful, and is much better than average in quality compared to the other two headed percussion types we have seen so far –  Read more

The MAX 2 Dual-Node Percussion Massager Cordless Model (By Brookstone) – Price: $230 w/ Free Shipping

MAX 2 Dual-Node Percussion Massager Cordless ModelDescription: There is almost no difference between this model and the previous model we looked at, which is the corded model (Read our review here). The One difference is that this model can be cordless (even though it can be powered through the cord if desired). Since it is cordless than it must be powered by some type of battery that is most likely going to go either in the long arm, or the head area. we looked at the specifications on the product profile page and it says that the battery is not the usual 9 Volt or AAA, but the newer technology using rechargeable, lithium ion batteries. We have a lot of experience with Li-Po type batteries so we know that the Lithium Ion battery types are very light in weight compared to the amount of energy that can be stored and packed into the battery space – Read more

The Brookstone Sport Handheld Massager – Model 672469 – Price: $60 w/ Free Shipping

Brookstone Sport Handheld Massager - Model 672469Description: I pride myself on being aware of almost all the personal massager models and types sold under the Brookstone name but this model is new to me. I don’t remember seeing a model like this one. It is one of those types which has a rather thin neck which is not the head itself which forced you to choose between one of the three attachement heads. I have looked at the different attachments and so far, I was not impressed with them. The one that is shown in most of the pictures you will see is the wide one, but the design of the head suggests that you can’t really push down on the massager very hard or you risk breaking the connection point on where the neck snaps on to the head attachments. After looking at the reviews written about this particular model, we were a little bit worried about this model. Let’s explain what we are talking about a litte further below –  Read more

The TheraRUB Dual Head Percussion Massager – Price: $37 w/ Free Shipping

TheraRUB Dual Head Percussion MassagerDescription: This double headed percussion massager model is called the TheraRUB has been one of the best selling, most popular models sold online. It may look very similar to the other models like the PowerFingers, the Double Tapper, and even the Homedics models, but it seems to be just slightly better than all of those models when it comes to strength, and muscle pain relief. On the outside, it has the same shaped outer cover and the dual head nature like the others that we already looked at so far. So why has this model been just so popular and effective? Let’s look at the product specs to see what is the difference between this model and the others.   – Read more

The Carepeutic Traveler Rechargeable Percussion Massager – Model Kh248 – Price: $72 w/ Free Shipping

Carepeutic Traveler Rechargeable Percussion Massager - Model Kh248Description: We are very familiar with the different ways to relieve pain. One of the most common ways to treat pain is to use either cold therapy or infrared heat therapy. The combined action of using both cold therapy and then alternating to the heat therapy has been shown from many medical sources to work in numbing the pain and then providing relief from the pain. There is even a very popular brand out there, IcyHot, which derives their name from this form of pain relief treatment. This is where the Carepeutic Percussion Massager comes in, implementing that exact strategy. It gives the user the option to choose either to use a cold signal or a hot signal to relieve the local area where the pain is coming from – Read more

The PowerFingers Deep Tissue Massager (From Dr. Noble’s ProMassagers) – Price: $171 w/ Free Shipping

PowerFingers Deep Tissue MassagerDescription: There are maybe just a few dozen models of handheld massagers being sold around the world and we have looked at (and reviewed) almost all of them so far. This model called the PowerFingers Deep Tissue Massager was one of the few models which we have known for a long time. The Dr. Noble’s Pro Massager brand name is very well known. They have some of the highest, best rated devices in our industry. The last that we checked, the brand series has only a total of 4 different types of large sized handheld percussion type massagers. The PowerFingers Deep Tissue model is one of them. What makes this model different from so many others that we have found is its combination of small size, being light weight, its strength in being able to really get to the deep tissues, and the adjustable dial, which lets you set the speed of the vibrating knob heads from as low as just 1 to as high as 10 – Read more

The HT-1280 Swan Softouch Handheld Percussion Massager (by Human Touch) – Price: $100 w/ Free Shipping

HT-1280 Swan Softouch MassagerDescription: This model which I found at the local Relax-The-Back store has the one model which I have had for a very long time. The first time I tried using it on my back, I was instantly hooked on it. The pulsing, vibrations, and overall feel of the model helped relieve a lower back pinch almost instantly. This particular model is really that good. I have been calling it the “Swan Handheld Massager” but the real name of it seems to be the Swan Softtouch Massager Model HT-1280. It is a white color, model with a very long neck. The handle has been ergonomically designed to let you hold it in one hand and use it to reach places in your back and other hard to reach areas very easily. What I personally have loved about this particular model has been the design of the head, which is just one percussion head. Usually having just one head is something that I am not a fan with, but the way the head is designed and the strength of the massage is just so good that – Read more

The Energy King High Frequency Vibration Massager (Model LC-2017-A) – Price: $55 w/ Free Shipping

Energy King High Frequency Vibration MassagerDescription: This model is labeled the Energy King Massager (Model number LC-2017-A) which some other people have called the High Frequency Vibration Massager. This was the 2nd massager model type that we bought from the Alibaba.com website and wanted to try out to review and use on ourselves. After paying the cost of the actual unit and then the shipping and packing costs, it took a full week and a half before we finally got it in the mail. It is a multi-form type of massager because while it may look like another large sized handheld massager, you also have the option of using the device as a portable palm sized massager. The handle actually can be popped off, and then you snap on a bottom piece. Your hand goes through the sleeve on the top and you use the device sort of like a bathroom scrub – Read more

The Dr Franklyns Deep Tissue Hammer Massager (by Frankies) – Price: $30 w/ Free Shipping

Dr Franklyns Deep Tissue Hammer MassagerDescription: The next large sized electronic hammer massager is sold by Frankies, under the Dr. Franklyn’s brand name. It is similar to many of the other large massagers that we have found being sold. The main difference between this model and the others is that there are two independent pulsing percussion heads. Many others have just one vibrating head. There really isn’t that much you can do to adjust the model. There is just one main switch, which turns on the device, and then allows you to switch from the low speed mode to the higher speed mode. Since I mainly look for a good, strong massager to relieve my back pain, I almost always exclusively use just the higher speed model, to really help dig really deep into the tissue to relieve pain caused by muscles that tense up. What I have noticed is that this particular model is  – Read more

The Wahl Brand

The Wahl “All-Body Massage” Therapeutic Massager (Model 4120-200) – Price: $39 w/ Free Shipping

Wahl All-Body Massage Therapeutic Massager Model 4120-200Description: The company Wahl has been around for almost a full century now and they are most famous for selling hair cuttign tools and accessories. If you have bought any type of clippers, hair trimmers, or electric hair cutter, it was most likely a Wahl. I have bought two Wahl hair trimming products so far and they were both very cheap and have stayed functional for more than a year now. We are not sure when the company Wahl decided to go into the massager market, but so far there is a total of 10 different models of Wahl massagers that we have found (Refer to the Massager page on Wahl here). This particular model which is often labeled at model # 4120-200 has the name “All-Body Massage”. Based on the product comparison chart below, you can see – Read more

The Wahl Corded Body Massager with Heat Therapy (Model 4295) – Price: $36 w/ Free Shipping

Wahl Corded Body Massager with Heat Therapy Model 4295Description: Like we already said about the different types of massagers that Wahl has designed, manufactured, and sold. there is a total of 10 different models that we have found so far (well actually 11 now). This model is the Model #4295, which is supposed to be the most powerful model that also uses Heat Therapy for pain relief and muscle tension. There is a total of 9 different attachment heads that comes with the basic unit. What makes the “Heat Therapy” models different ones that are supposed to be just “Corded”, “Battery” , or “Rechargeable” is that the heat therapy, which is just infrared light emission, is included in the model as well as the usual vibrating massage stimuli  – Read more

The Wahl Heat Therapy Therapeutic Massager (Model 4196-1201) – Price: $24

Wahl Heat Therapy Therapeutic Massager -Model 4196-1201Description: This model is called the “Deluxe” Model which uses the heat therapy. We did not find out any information about this model initially since the Therapeutics page on the Wahl website did not have this exact model listed in their product model comparison chart. This model was listed on the Amazon website as a model #4196-1201. The closest model that we found before was the 4196-1101, which looks almost exactly like this model. After looking at the number of attachments that comes in the package for the head, 4, we realized that this model was the Model 4196-1201, not the 4196-1101. The other model has a total of 8 different head attachments. This model has just 4 attachments.  – Read more

The Wahl Deep Tissue Percussion Therapeutic Massager (Model 4290-300) – Price: $32

Wahl Deep Tissue Percussion Therapeutic MassagerDescription: If you are going to be searching for any type of pain relief massager or back massager, this model is probably going to be one of the first models that you will ever find that is listed on the Amazon website. It is just a simple percussion type massager with a single head. I have personally tested many different types before which are very similar, like the Dolphin Massager, and they are usually quite good for treating the usually type of muscle strain and pain. When I first tried out these single head models, I was surprised at just how effective they are at removing muscle tension and knots. I bought one that very day for $100 and have had one of these beside my head for the last 5 years. They are really that good and effective. This model has the standard option where you can adjust the knob to change the speed on it – Read more

The Wahl Deluxe Model 4296 Massager (Corded) – Price: $21

Wahl Deluxe Model 4296 MassagerDescription: So this model was classified under the Corded section, and labeled as the “Deluxe” model. On the Wahl website you can see that it has asome features which we have not seen before, including the – Read more

Here are some other models that are sold under the Wahl brand

  • The Most Powerful Battery Powered Therapeutic Massager by Wahl, Model 4293 – Price: $19
  • The Battery Powered Deluxe Model 4297 Massager by Wahl – Price: $8
  • The Battery Powered Therapeutic Massager by Wahl , Standard Model 4298 – Price: $16
  • The Wahl Deluxe Model 4196-1101 Massager, with Heat Therapy – This model is no longer available. The 4196-1101 has turned into the 4196-1201 model.
  • The Wahl Standard Model 4196-1001 Massager, with Heat Therapy – Price: $39 w/ Free Shipping
  • The Wahl Rechargeable Standard Therapeutic Massager – Model 4294-700 – Price: $21)

Other Brand and Companies

The Dual Tapper Electric Handheld Percussion Massager – Price: $30

Dual Tapper Electric Handheld Percussion MassagerDescription: This model called the “Dual Tapper Electric Handheld Percussion Massager” technically is a model which we have already reviewed and looked at already. That would be the US Jaclean Dual Tapper. The models are exactly the same thing, so if you want a more comprehensive review on the actual product, click here. However, we did want to add a few things about this particular model, which is being sold by the brand name “Fatherland Shop”. The resellers seems to be selling a variety of products, not exclusive to just health and wellness products. This particular product is quite cheap, just like the same model listed on the page for US Jaclean. It is priced slightly higher, usually around $5, however it seems to have much more reviews and a slightly higher rating on Amazon. We are not sure right now whether there might have been some type of slight improvement in the models, like a type of product upgrade where any quality control problem control problems were resolved. At this time, we should recommend that if you are interested in buying this product, try to compare this model’s price to the other sellers, who might have it listed at a cheaper price – Read more

The US Jaclean Brand

The U.S. Jaclean Dual Tapper – Price: $23

U.S. Jaclean Dual TapperDescription: This is one of the older, but cheaper models of double head percussion massager that is on sale by US Jaclean. It is called the Dual Tapper. The reason why it is called the Dual Tapper is because the massager model has two vibrating heads instead of one. The feature of this model having two heads means that there are some good things that comes with it, but also some things that make it unattractive as a model. The most obvious benefit from using a dual headed model is that you can cover a much larger area of body to massage. Since the human body is symmetrical, you can put each head on the side of the spine, and massage the shoulder area, neck area, or lower back area on both sides. It would not require that you work on one area first and then have to switch to using the othr hand to get to the opposite side of the torso. When you are getting one part stimulated and worked on, the opposite side has the same level of intensity and work – Read more

The U.S. Jaclean Tapping Pro Handheld Percussion Massager – Price: $24

U.S. Jaclean Tapping Pro Handheld Percussion MassagerDescription: This model which has been very popular and selling very well on Amazon is the Pro model sold by the company US Jaclean. We looked at the US Jaclean website and see that it is another online retail store, which has been selling Quality Health products since 1982. Their most popular products is probably the lines of massagers that they have been selling under their name. They have handheld massagers, back massagers, neck massagers, and feet massagers, as well as a few massage chairs. On the Handheld Massagers page, they have 5 current models being sold, The Dual Tapper, The EZ Reach Duo, The UFO Massager, The MAX PRO, and The Tapping Pro. The others like the Electronic Pulse Massager is also a popular brand model. Out of all those models, this Tapping Pro model is probably their best selling model, for a number of reasons – Read more


  • The US Jaclean  EZ Reach Duo,
  • The US Jaclean UFO Massager,
  • The US Jaclean MAX PRO

The Zyllion Brand

The Zyllion Handheld Therapeutic Percussion Massager (Model ZMA-16) – Price: $40 w/ Free Shipping

Zyllion Handheld Therapeutic Percussion Massager - Model ZMA-16Description: We know the company Zyllion very well. They focus almost exclusively on sell massagers and massage accessories. Most of their products are for the neck, and back, but there seems to be only one handheld model. This model would be it, which they have labeled as the ZMA-16. Recently they did get the popular pulse massager (which is just the Pl-009 TENS Unit model) into their lineup, but it is this ZMA-16 model which is what will really work on the body. First, let’s talk about the good parts of this particular model, and then focus later on the stuff that was not as good. Like the profile page says, the model ZMA-16 has the option of heat therapy added into it, which is not that special since over half of the models that are now being developed  – Read more